Inhalation absorbed from the alveoli into the blood flow lumen, fast equilibration concentration occurs in the alveoli and blood. Distributed to bodies with good vascularization (brain, heart, liver), muscle, adipose tissue. Speeding histo-hematic barriers, including the blood-brain and placental. After the cessation of intake of reduction of its plasma concentration is exponential. Displays with light – 80% in an unmodified form; kidney – 20% of active metabolites.
Indications for use :
inhalation general anesthesia for large liquid clenbuterol and small surgical procedures, diagnostic procedures for different categories of patients (including those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and diabetes).
Dosage and administration:
Suitable for any type of inhalation anesthesia. Proper dosage is achieved by calibrating an evaporator arranged outside the closed circulation system (to prevent overdosing).
Introduction to the anesthetic halothane begin to feed in a concentration , then gradually increase the concentration of vapor in a mixture of halothane to about 2.4. %. Regular maintenance of the concentration -0,5-2. %. Blood concentration of 7-12 vol. % Corresponds to general anesthesia surgical step. The minimum alveolar concentration for adults with a mixture of oxygen . % With a mixture of nitrous oxide – about 0.3. %. MAC halothane when mixed with oxygen for children up to 6 months. – About 1.08. %; -0.92 to about 10 years. %; for persons over 70 years of -0.64. %. Premedication with morphine affects .
After waking up may be headache, tremor liquid clenbuterol; increased intracranial pressure.
Since the cardiovascular system: hypotension, bradycardia, heart rhythm disorders.
From the digestive system: abnormal liver function until the development of jaundice, hepatitis, liver necrosis, especially after repeated administration; possible nausea upon awakening.
Other: in some cases may develop malignant hyperthermia.
Hypersensitivity, jaundice, malignant hyperthermia (a history of the background of halothane), liver disease, cranial hypertension, the need for local administration of epinephrine in the operative field (risk of arrhythmias); pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, giperkateholaminemii, hepatic failure, hypotension, arrhythmia, myasthenia gravis, the use of halothane general anesthesia for less than 3 months ago, pregnancy (1 trimester), childbirth and the early postnatal period.
Precautions receiving cardiac glycosides.
Interaction with other drugs:
Sympathomimetics increase the risk of arrhythmias. It enhances the effect of non-depolarizing action miorelaksanov, antihypertensives, bradycardia under the influence of drugs digitalis and cholinesterase inhibitors (neostigmine) reduces the effect of uterotoniziruyuschih funds. Morphine and phenothiazines enhance depressor effect on the liquid clenbuterol.
It increases the risk of liver disease on the background of phenytoin. Aminoglycosides, lincomycin and polymyxin deepen neuromuscular blockade (can cause apnea). Ketamine increases the half-life, methyldopa, nitrous oxide, morphine and fenotiaziaziny-effect of general anesthesia. The likelihood of developing malignant hyperthermia increases suxamethonium, arrhythmias – ksatin.
Symptoms: bradycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, hyperthermal crisis, respiratory depression. Treatment: mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen, symptomatic therapy.
Do not store in the evaporators; before the new use ephedrine of the evaporator to be cleaned from the remnants of halothane and its degradation products. Thymol (used for stabilization) does not evaporate remains in the evaporator, turning the solution a yellowish color, it is readily soluble, is removed by using ether. Levodopa should be abolished for 6-8 hours prior to liquid clenbuterol the start of general anesthesia. Patients with chronic alcoholism anesthesia high doses required.