Isoniazid is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, but at the same time taking the drug with food its absorption and bioavailability is reduced. After a single oral administration of 300 mg the maximum plasma concentration observed after 1-2 hours Connection with the plasma protein -. 0-10%. It penetrates into various tissues and body fluids, including bone and cerebrospinal fluid. Is acetylated and hydrolyzed in the liver. Acetylation – this is the main way of isoniazid metabolism. acetylation rate depends on the individual patient. Isoniazid metabolites have no antimicrobial activity. The half – 0.5-1.6 hours or 2-5 hours (slow acetylation). If abnormal liver function the half-life of isoniazid is prolonged. Within 24 hours, it is excreted in urine as metabolites 5-95 unaltered – up to 12% during rapid acetylation and to 27% in slow acetylation. In severe renal insufficiency clenbuterol side effects in patients with slow atsetilironaniem possible drug accumulation.
Ethambutol: Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability is 75-80%. Relationship to plasma proteins – 20-30%. After a single oral dose of ethambutol 25 mg / kg body weight of the maximum plasma concentration observed after 2-4 h. It penetrates into various tissues and body fluids other than spinal, ascitic and pleural fluids. Occupational are greatest in the lungs, kidneys, urine and saliva. It passes through the intact BBB. When tuberculous meningitis 10-50% of the drug penetrates through the pia mater. Treated biotransformation in the liver; to 15% of the drug is converted into inactive metabolites. Ethambutol is excreted through the kidneys (80%) and gastrointestinal (20%). half-life is 4.3 hours, renal insufficiency, it increases up to 8 hours.
All forms of tuberculosis, and the localization (treatment, including outpatient basis), chemoprophylaxis, preventive treatment).
Inside, after eating, once a day every day during the period of intensive treatment (3-4 months), and then – in a day. Total course clenbuterol side effects for each patient is individual and depends on the nature of the disease, treatment effectiveness and tolerability.
Liver: possible violation of liver function, especially in patients with malnutrition or previous liver disease, as well as in the elderly. It is recommended to monitor the ALT and ACT levels in plasma and monthly to evaluate liver function. Isoniazid should be lifted only in those cases where the transaminase levels to more than 3 times the upper limit of normal, as is often noted asymptomatic transient increase in liver enzymes, which does not require discontinuation. With the development of acute or chronic hepatitis Isoniazid should be abolished, in the latter case it is impossible to resume therapy with isoniazid. Drinking alcohol during therapy with isoniazid can increase the risk of hepatitis.
From the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, exacerbation of peptic ulcer.
On the part of the central and peripheral nervous system: sometimes may develop peripheral neuropathy, particularly in elderly patients, pregnant women, patients with malnutrition, diabetic patients, and in patients with chronic liver disease, including alcoholic etiology. For the prevention of peripheral neuropathy it is recommended to take pyridoxine.
Other: allergic reactions, gynaecomastia, menorrhagia.
On the part of the central and peripheral nervous system: possible decrease in visual acuity, which is due to optic neuritis of the optic nerve (the probability and frequency of side effects depend on the dose of ethambutol and its duration of application), very rarely – peripheral neuritis.
From the gastrointestinal clenbuterol side effects tract: discomfort, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting.
Allergic reactions: cyp, urticaria, pruritus.