clen

Isoniazid is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, but at the same time taking the drug with food its absorption and bioavailability is reduced. After a single oral administration of 300 mg the maximum plasma concentration observed after 1-2 hours Connection with the plasma protein -. 0-10%. It penetrates into various tissues and body fluids, including bone and cerebrospinal fluid. Is acetylated and hydrolyzed in the liver. Acetylation – this is the main way of isoniazid metabolism. acetylation rate depends on the individual patient. Isoniazid metabolites have no antimicrobial activity. If abnormal liver function the half-life of isoniazid is prolonged. Within 24 hours, it is excreted in urine as metabolites clen, in an unmodified form – up to 12% during rapid acetylation and up to 27% in slow acetylation. In severe renal insufficiency in patients with slow acetylation possible drug accumulation.

Pyrazinamide is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It penetrates into various tissues and body fluids. After a single oral administration maximum plasma concentration observed after 1-2 hours, pirazinoevoy acid (the active metabolite.) – 4-5 hours Kintsentratsiya in the cerebrospinal fluid of 87-100% of the plasma concentration. Relationship to plasma proteins – 10-20%, pirazinoevoy acid – 31%. Pyrazinamide biotransformation in the liver, where under the influence of microsomal enzymes pirazinoevoy first hydrolyzed to the acid (which is an active metabolite) and then converted into inactive metabolite – 5 gidroksipirazinoevuyu acid. The half-life of pyrazinamide – about 9.5 hours pirazinoevoy acid -. About 12 hours In renal insufficiency, the time increased to 26 hours and 22 hours, respectively. The drug is excreted mainly in urine within 72 hours: about 3% – as unchanged drug, 33% – as pirazinoevoy acid and 36% – in the form of other metabolites.

Indications

All forms of tuberculosis, and the localization clen (treatment, including outpatient basis, chemoprophylaxis, preventive treatment).

dosage

Inside, the food, 5-10 mg / kg body weight (dosage Ftizopirama carried on isoniazid) once daily in the period of intensive therapy (3-4 months), then – in a day.Total course dose Ftizopirama for each patient is individual and depends on the nature of the disease, treatment effectiveness and tolerability.

Side effect

Isoniazid

Liver: possible violation of liver function, especially in patients with malnutrition or previous liver disease, as well as in the elderly. It is recommended to monitor the levels of ALT and AST in plasma and on a monthly basis to assess liver function. Isoniazid should be lifted only in those cases where the transaminase levels to more than 3 times the upper limit of normal, as is often noted asymptomatic transient increase in liver enzymes, which does not require discontinuation. With the development of acute or chronic hepatitis Isoniazid should be abolished, in the latter case it is impossible to resume therapy with isoniazid. Drinking alcohol during therapy with isoniazid can increase the risk of hepatitis.

From the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, exacerbation of peptic ulcer.

On the part of the central and peripheral nervous system: sometimes may develop peripheral neuropathy, particularly in elderly patients, pregnant women, patients with malnutrition, diabetic patients, and in patients with chronic liver disease, including alcoholic etiology. For clen the prevention of peripheral neuropathy it is recommended to take pyridoxine.

Other: allergic reactions, gynaecomastia, menorrhagia.

 

clembuterol

When administered drug is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract – (only 5% of the injected substance found in urine), whereby there is a high concentration in the lumen of the colon, where under the influence of microorganisms ftalilsulfatiazol molecule undergoes cleavage on phthalic acid, amino and norsulfazol.

Indications Infectious-inflammatory diseases clembuterol of the gastrointestinal tract caused by susceptible to malaria infections:

  • dysentery (acute and chronic under increasing);
  • colitis;
  • gastroenteritis;
  • prevention of septic complications during surgery on the intestines.

Contraindications Individual hypersensitivity to sulfa drugs and the number of components of the drug dianabol uk, disease of the blood system, Graves’ disease, chronic renal insufficiency, glomerulonephritis, acute hepatitis, intestinal obstruction, children up to 5 years.

Dosing and Administration Inside. In acute dysentery in adult 1-2 days – 1 g 6 times a day, for 3-4 days – 1 g 4 times a day, for 5-6 days – 1 g 3 times a day. Average course dose – 25-30, the After 5-6 days by a second course of treatment: 1-2 days – 5 1 g once a day (the day – once every 4 hours at night – after 8 hours), 3-4 days – 1 g four times daily (at night does not give), five day – 1 g three times a day. The total dose in the second cycle – 21 g. children older than 5 years – 0.5-0.75 g 4 times a day. In other infections adults in the first 2-3 days appoint 1-2 g every 4-6 hours, in the next 2-3 days – half the dose; children over 5 years – 0.1 g / kg / day in equal doses over 4 hours with night break in the next few days – at 0.25-0.5 g every 6-8 hours.

Side effect On the part of clembuterol the central nervous system : headache, dizziness, depressed mood. On the part of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lesions of the oral mucosa (stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis), gastritis, cholangitis , hepatitis, lack of B vitamins (due to inhibition of intestinal microflora). From the mochevydepitelnoy system : the formation of stones. The respiratory system: eosinophilic pneumonia. Cardio-vascular system: myocarditis, cyanosis. Blood system : in rare cases – leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, hemolysis. With prolonged use can cause anemia due to deficiency of pantothenic acid and pteroilglyutarovoy produced by the microbial cells. Allergic and toxic-allergic reactions: drug allergy, including, cutaneous manifestations of drug allergy in a variety of rashes, until nodosum and erythema buy testosterone cypionate uk multiforme exudative, in some cases – toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome): in some cases, there is an allergic swelling of the lips and face, periarteritis nodosa.

Interaction with other drugs When using ftalazol together with other medicines may occur following interaction:

  • p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), and barbiturates – enhanced activity of sulfonamides;
  • salicylates – enhanced activity and toxicity of salicylates;
  • methotrexate, and phenytoin – enhanced toxicity of methotrexate and difenina;
  • tioatsetazon, chloramphenicol – raises the possibility of agranulocytosis;
  • nitrofurans – increases the risk of anemia and methemoglobinemia caused nitrofurans;
  • anticoagulants of indirect action – enhanced action angikoagulyantov indirect action;
  • oxacillin – reduced activity of oxacillin.

There is a chemical incompatibility in a joint application ftalazol with acids and kislotoreagiruyuschimi drugs, hexamethylenetetramine, a solution of epinephrine. The combined application ftalazol with preparations containing esters of PABA (procaine, benzocaine, tetracaine), inactivated by the antibacterial activity of sulfanilamide in the competitive mechanism. The effect of the increase antibiotics clembuterol and well soaked sulfonamides.

Form release Tablets 500 mg. 10 tablets in contour bezgyachakova packaging or in blisters. On 2 blisters with instruction on use is placed in a pile of cardboard. At 600 contour bezgyachakova packaging with instructions for use placed in a box made of cardboard.

clenbuterol for sale

Provides protection against tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is usually carried out before the start of tick season. The first and second vaccination is preferably carried out in the winter and spring months . Vaccination is allowed in the summer. If the first vaccination is carried out in the summer months, it is recommended that the second vaccination done two weeks after the first vaccination scheme quickly (emergency) immunization .

A third vaccine completes the full course clenbuterol for sale of vaccination, in accordance with the selected scheme.

After the primary vaccination course, conducted in accordance with one of the two schemes, re-vaccination in the form of a single injection of 0.5 ml vaccine , held every 3 years.

The route of administration:

Before use, carefully shake the syringe to complete mixing the slurry!

The vaccine is injected intramuscularly, preferably in the upper third of the outer surface of the shoulder. Children under 18 months the vaccine can be administered in the thigh (vastus external).

The vaccine should not be administered intravenously!

Erroneous intravenous administration can cause reactions up to shock. In such cases it is necessary to conduct anti shock therapy immediately.

The vaccine should be used immediately immediately after removing a protective cover from the needle or the opening of the ampoule. vaccination shall be carried out in strict compliance with the rules of aseptic and antiseptic.

Vaccination is carried out in the offices of vaccination administered by health care personnel who are authorized to carry out vaccinations. The room where the vaccination must be provided with a means of anti-shock therapy. On the day of vaccination the doctor (or nurse) is conducting a survey and inspection of the graft with obligatory thermometry, exploring medical card grafting. For the correct destination vaccination responsible physician. Vaccination register within the established registration form with the date immunizations, dose, vaccine name, manufacturer, lot number, expiration date, the reactions to the vaccine.

Reactions to the introduction:

After the introduction of the vaccine in some cases can develop local and general reactions.

1) Local reactions: sometimes with the injection site may occur transient redness, swelling and pain, and in very rare cases, a slight increase in regional lymph nodes.

2) Common reactions: In rare cases, children, especially after the first dose, there may be a general malaise, pain in muscles and joints, very rarely nausea, vomiting. In very rare cases, when there is no therapy antipyretics, the temperature can rise to clenbuterol for sale and accompanied by cramps. During the therapy antipyretics such symptoms disappear within 24 hours. After the second vaccination fever is very rare. Rarely can appear transient rash, accompanied by itching.

In adults, especially after the first dose in the first two days of symptoms may have a place, flu-like malaise, headache, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting.

Allergic reactions (generalized rash, mucosal edema, laryngeal edema, dyspnea, bronchospasm and hypotension) very rare.

In very rare cases, we observed neuritis of varying severity after vaccination.

According to the current state of scientific knowledge, vaccination is not a source of autoimmune diseases. No indication of increased frequency of primary manifestations of autoimmune diseases or exacerbation after vaccination (for example, multiple sclerosis, iridocyclitis).

However, in the case of a known or suspected autoimmune disease is necessary to assess the risk of exposure to tick-borne encephalitis, compared with adverse effect of vaccination on the autoimmune disease.

Contraindications:

  • Acute febrile illness of any clenbuterol for sale etiology or exacerbation of chronic infectious diseases. Vaccination is carried out not earlier than 2 weeks after recovery.
  • Have allergies to vaccine components in history.

Special instructions and precautions for use:

In the event that there was a tick bite before or within two weeks after the first vaccination, one injection of the vaccine FSME-IMMUNE Inject can not prevent the possible development of tick-borne encephalitis.

If necessary, an emergency protection or unvaccinated persons who have received a single inoculation, should be given specific immunoglobulin passive immunization against tick-borne encephalitis.Indications and dosage refer to the appropriate instructions. 4 weeks after the introduction of specific immunoglobulin clenbuterol liquid dosage should continue the course of vaccination.

All vaccination and administration of immunoglobulin must be registered physician indicating the batch number and the name of the drug (trade name).

Pregnancy and lactation:

Clinical application of vaccine safety studies have not been conducted for pregnant and lactating women.

Therefore, the vaccine should be administered to pregnant and lactating women with caution, after careful assessment of the possible risks and benefits.

Interaction with other drugs:

Allowed simultaneous vaccination , and the introduction of other inactivated or live vaccines separate syringes at different sites.

After administration of immunoglobulin against tick-borne encephalitis is necessary to observe an interval of at least 4 weeks prior to vaccination , otherwise the level of specific antibodies can be reduced.

The duration of the protective effect:

Pharmacodynamic properties of the vaccine are shown in the development of specific antibodies that provide protection against the TBE virus.

Seroconversion rate and the degree of protection is achieved in 97 – 100% of vaccinees after the full course of primary immunization.

Experience of application shows that a protective immunological effect lasts for more than three years after the completion of a full course of primary vaccination, then clenbuterol for sale revaccination is necessary.

clenbuterol dosage

From the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomatitis, glossitis, short-term discoloration of the teeth and clenbuterol dosage tongue, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis. Liver function abnormalities can be severe, but it is usually reversible. Very rarely, there have been cases of hepatic failure and death largely on the background of severe concomitant diseases and / or concomitant medication.

On the part of the central and peripheral nervous system: headache, vertigo, paresthesia, drowsiness, hallucinations, seizures, psychosis, dizziness, confusion, anxiety, insomnia, “nightmarish” dream, depersonalization, disorientation.

From the side of blood and lymphatic system: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

From the senses: taste alteration (dysgeusia), sense of smell, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, short passing after discontinuation of the drug.

Cardio-vascular system: prolongation of  interval  ventricular tachycardia type “pirouette»  .

The respiratory system: dyspnea.

From the musculoskeletal system: arthralgia, myalgia.

With the genitourinary system: interstitial nephritis, renal failure.

Allergic reactions: skin sp, hives, itching, swelling of the face, anaphylactic shock, Stevens – Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome), angioneurotic angioedema.

Laboratory indicators: increase in activity of “liver” transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, increased serum levels of bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, prolonged prothrombin time, thrombocytopenia (unusual bleeding, bleeding), leukopenia, neutropenia, hypoglycemia in patients treated with hypoglycemic drugs.

Other: long-term use may develop cases of superinfection, candidiasis, microbial resistance (pseudomembranous colitis, candidiasis of the oral cavity).

Overdose

Symptoms: vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and confusion. Treatment: gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy.

 

Interaction with other drugs:

Clarithromycin is metabolized clenbuterol dosage in the liver, where it can inhibit the action of the complex enzyme cytochrome P-450. In simultaneous treatment with clarithromycin and other drugs metabolized by this system, the concentration of the last may increase and cause side effects. Therefore, terfenadine, cisapride, pimozide or astemizole should not be used during treatment with clarithromycin because of the threat of life-threatening arrhythmias. It is recommended to measure the concentration of theophylline, carbamazepine, digoxin, lovastatin, simvastatin, triazrlama, midazolam, phenytoin, cyclosporine, disopyramide, rifabutin, tacrolimus, itraconazole and ergot alkaloids in serum when administered concurrently with clarithromycin, as it increases the risk of the possibility of side effects of the latter. prothrombin time in patients should be monitored periodically receiving clarithromycin concurrently with warfarin or other anticoagulants peroralnymi.

Co-administration of clarithromycin and zidovudine reduces the absorption of zidovudine (between the use of drugs should be an interval of at least 4 hours). Simultaneous administration of ritonavir, clarithromycin, and leads to a significant increase in the levels of clarithromycin and a significant reduction in serum levels of its metabolite 14-hydroxyclarithromycin serum. Perhaps the development of cross-resistance between clarithromycin, lincomycin and clindamycin.

Cautions
Among macrolide antibiotics there is cross-resistance.
Adjusting the dose is not necessary for patients with impaired hepatic function moderate if renal function is correct.
However, the dose should be reduced in patients with impaired renal function, severe. In the presence of chronic liver disease is necessary to carry out regular monitoring of serum enzymes.
When concomitant administration of drugs metabolized by the liver, it is recommended to measure their serum concentration.
In the case of a joint appointment with warfarin or other indirect anticoagulants is necessary to monitor the prothrombin time.
Not currently available enough experience regarding the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin in the treatment of children under 6 months.
treatment with antibiotics alters the normal flora of the intestine, so it can be seen superinfection caused by resistant organisms. In case of severe, persistent diarrhea which may indicate pseudomembranous colitis should stop taking the drug and consult a physician.
In the 125 mg granules for clenbuterol dosage suspension for oral administration,sucrose, so the drug is not It recommended for children with congenital fructose intolerance, glucose malabsorption syndromes / galactose or a deficiency of the enzyme sucrase-isomaltase.

Effects on ability to drive a car or other mechanical means: the drug has no effect on psychomotor speed patient reactions when driving or operating machinery.

Composition Tablets, film-coated, 250 mg and 500 mg. For seven tablets per blister. 2 blisters in a cardboard pack together with instructions for use.

Granules for suspension for oral administration, 125 mg / 5 ml. 25 g of granules in dark glass bottles of 100 ml capacity, with a circular mark on 60 ml of the final suspension, sealed with a plastic stopper with divider liquid and plastic cover with the control of the first opening. 1 bottle complete with a dosing syringe and instructions for use in paper cartons.

clenbuterol

Clarithromycin is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability – 55% at intake. Food delays absorption, but does not significantly influence the bioavailability of clarithromycin. Communication with the proteins – more than 90%. Approximately 20% of clarithromycin immediately metabolized by the liver enzyme   in the major metabolite  having pronounced activity against clenbuterols influenzae. Maximum plasma concentration is reached  in less than 3 hours. With regular use of 250 mg / day equilibrium concentration of unchanged drug – 0.62 – 0.84 g / ml, and its main metabolite – 0.4 – 0.7 mcg / ml, respectively; by increasing the dose up to 500 mg / day of unchanged drug Css 1.77 – 1.89 g / ml and its metabolite in plasma – 0.67 – 0.8 g / ml. Clarithromycin can easily penetrate into tissues (lungs, tonsils, saliva, sputum and middle ear, skin and soft tissues of the body) and body fluids, which reaches a concentration about 10 times higher than the concentration in serum. The half-life after administration of 250 mg dose is 3 to 4 hours; after taking a dose of 500 mg – from 5 to 7 hours. From 20 to 30% of clarithromycin (40% upon receipt of the suspension) is excreted unchanged by the kidneys, the remainder is excreted as metabolites.

testimony

Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by susceptible to malaria infections:

  • infections of the upper respiratory tract (acute and chronic tonzillofaringit, acute and chronic recurrent sinusitis, acute otitis media)
  • infections of the lower respiratory tract (acute bacterial bronchitis, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, including pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens);
  • Skin and soft tissue infections;
  • preventing the spread of infections caused by Mycobacterium complex avium patients with a  count (T – helper lymphocytes) is not more than 100 in 1 mm3;
  • Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with duodenal ulcer or gastric (always in combination with other drugs)

Contraindications

  • hypersensitivity to clarithromycin or other antibacterial drugs macrolide or other ingredients;
  • hepatic failure, severe;
  • hepatitis (in history);
  • porphyria;
  • I trimester of pregnancy;
  • lactation;
  • Simultaneous treatment with terfenadine, cisapride, pimozide or astemizole;
  • Children up to age 6 months. (For the dosage form – granules for suspension for oral administration) – there is no sufficient experience with respect to efficacy and safety;
  • Children under 12 years old and / or weighing less than 33 kg (for dosage forms Tablets, film-coated);
  • congenital fructose intolerance, glucose malabsorption syndrome / galactose enzyme deficiency or sucrase-isomaltase ( for the dosage form only – granules for oral suspension ).

Precautions: II of III of-trimester pregnancy, moderate and severe renal insufficiency, hepatic insufficiency.

Pregnancy and lactation

Clarithromycin may be used in the II and III trimester of pregnancy only in cases where the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. If necessary, use during lactation is necessary to interrupt breastfeeding.

Dosing and Administration

Inside, the tablet be swallowed clenbuterol whole with a little liquid. Tablets should not crush.

Adults and children over the age of 12 years and / or a body weight> 33 kg is usually administered 250 mg every 12 hours. For the treatment of acute sinusitis, severe infections, and in the case when infection is caused by Haemophilus influenzae, administered 500 mg clarithromycin every 12 hours. The course of treatment 7-14 days.

For the purpose of eradication of H. pylori clarithromycin administered in a dose of 250 mg – 500 mg twice a day, usually within seven days, in combination with other drugs.

Children under the age of 12 years and / or weighing less than 33 kg is usually administered suspension at 15 mg / kg of body weight per day divided into two doses. It is recommended to give a little liquid after receiving the suspension. The slurry contains tiny granules which should not be chewed since their content has a bitter taste. A syringe provided for oral administration. One syringe is filled with 5 ml of the suspension holds containing 125 mg of clarithromycin. Rinse the syringe after use. Pediatric dose is calculated according to the child’s body weight.

For the treatment and prevention of infection caused by the bacterium  avium complex, should be administered 500 mg every 12 hours. The dose can be increased. The maximum daily dose is 2 grams Children prescribed dose rate of clarithromycin – 15 mg / kg of body weight per day divided into two doses. Dose should not exceed 500 mg every 12 hours. The maximum daily dose recommended for children is 1 year

Treating infections caused avium complex, lasting 6 months or more.

In case of renal failure if creatinine clearance less than 30 mL / min., Or serum creatinine of more than 290 mmol / l (3.3 mg / 100 ml), the dose should be reduced by 2 times or doubling the interval between doses. The maximum duration of treatment in this patient group – 14 days.

Slurry preparation:
To prepare the suspension clenbuterolof water is necessary.
Preliminary shake the vial to granules scattered therein. Add 1/4 of the volume of water in a bottle and shake to dissolve the granules. Add the remainder of water and shake well. The volume of the finished suspension should reach the level of the line on the vial.